Wednesday, February 27, 2019

Nipah virus: Outbreak and overview

Nipah virus is a zoonotic pathogen that are transmitted from animals to humans. These are usually occurred by pteropid bats and microbats of several species. This spread directly when in close contact with humans to humans or with the contact in the human secretion or excretion.

Sometimes the infection can spread to humans without any symptoms however when the case is severe it may show through an influenza such as fever, sore throat, myalgia and vomiting. As the severity of the disease increase this may progress to the breathing problem, respiratory infection, fatal encephalitis which may cause inflammation in the tissue. Altered consciousness, dizziness, drowsiness are the other symptoms identified. In some extreme cases seizures and encephalitis occur.
This infection could be diagnosed only by laboratory testing of throat and nasal swabs, blood test, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, virus isolation and detection, urine test.

This virus and its effects could be avoided by some of the basic practices such as being in close or unprotected contact with the infected people. Keeping the environment hygiene and washing hand with soap. Should not consume partly eaten fruit or unpasteurised fruit juices.

At present there is no vaccine or drug available for the eradication of this virus for both humans and animals. Intensive supportive care is given as the primary treatment for the disease by focusing on the management of fever and neurological symptoms if any. Even after full recovery people are expected to survive an acute encephalitis. The victims can also show long term neurological conditions like seizure disorder.

Tuesday, February 26, 2019

Causes and Treatment of Fungal disease Mycosis on Humans

The high rates mortality caused by fungal infections and high toxicity of the compounds. Mycosis caused by Fungi are common and can develop fungal diseases. As this ranks the 4th common infection among the people

They mostly affect the Individuals with weakened immune systems and people under steroid treatments or people taking chemotherapy. This can be classified as Superficial mycoses, Cutaneous mycoses, Subcutaneous mycoses, Systemic mycoses due to opportunistic pathogens, Systemic mycoses due to primary pathogens based on the initial colonization on the tissue level.

Superficial mycoses generally outermost layers of the skin and hair whereas Cutaneous mycoses penetrates deeper into the epidermis which may affect and cause invasive hair and nail diseases. Subcutaneous mycoses cause infection in dermis, mus
cle, subcutaneous tissues, fascia, Systemic mycoses involves opportunistic pathogens and causes infections in patients with immune deficiencies. Systemic mycoses due to primary pathogens originate initially in the lungs and may spread to many organ systems.

These kind of mycosis diseases can be prevented before its spread such as maintaining the skin clean and dry keeping maintaining good hygiene. As these are fungal infection care must be taken after getting in contact with people and animals.

Generally antifungal drugs are used to treat this kind of infection that also involves the nature of infection, systemic and tropical agents. The drug includes fluconazole, used as a basic vaccine for antifungal infection and amphotericin B that acts on the treatment of most severe fungal infection. Sometimes Fungal in the form of yeast infects the vagina and can cause Candida albicans that is treated with external ointments like tioconazole

Sunday, February 24, 2019

Malaria: Plasmodium parasite overview and Treatment

Malaria is a mosquito borne life threatening disease that are caused by the parasite plasmodium. These are generally caused by bite of Anopheles mosquito which can be transmitted to humans via various ways. This destroys the red blood cells once when the infected mosquito bites the human and the parasite multiply causing infection.

This type of infection can be detected in the early stage itself through some of the symptoms such as fever, chills, prostration, prone position, multiple consciousness, deep breathing in worst cases this can lead to abnormal bleeding, signs of anemia, clinical jaundice and sometimes vital organ dysfunction. These symptoms can be identified on an average of 10 to 11 days.

According to WHO (World Health Organization) a confirmation on a microscopic laboratory testing or a rapid diagnostic test is necessary for the identification and conformation of the disease. These symptoms without treatment may lead to the transmission of the disease to the surrounding population.

ACT (Artemisinin based combination therapy) which is obtained from the plant Artemisia annua is generally recommended by the uncomplicated or initial stage of malaria as it has the ability to reduce plasmodium. In severe cases intravenous artesunate is acting as a parasite clearance where it reduces the risk rate in body. Quinine is the most common drug of choice in the treatment of malaria, but this dosage and injection of this drug varies and should be carefully maintained for the pregnancy patients and cardio patients. Sometimes Quinidine is used as an alternative for quinine. Quinine should be given for a minimum of five days and can be stopped thereafter once the patient is aparasitaemic for two consecutive blood films, taken 24 h apart.

Thursday, February 21, 2019

Inflammatory Bowel disease with Hepatitis virus infection

Inflammatory bowel disease is caused by Viral hepatitis which generally affects by chronic hepatitis B virus with active disease and viral replication. In other case Hepatitis C virus affects the individual. This are mostly found in the rheumatic patients. Where the chron’s disease patients are at the high risk of HBV infection which may be due to the endoscopic and surgical procedure.

This Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can be divided into three broad categories such as active chronic, inactive carrier and resolved. Active HBV is generally denoted with the HBV DNA level more than or equal to 2000 UI per ml with the elevated alanine amino transfer whereas inactive HBV is defined by less than or equal to 2000 IU per ml and therefore the patients with immunosuppressive medication concern with the change in serum amino transfer as per the epidemiological and treatment group studies

This cumulative prevalence of either HCV or HBV seem to present a large variance with all patients with HBV infection should be treated when they have both increased liver enzymes and positive HBV-DNA.

If a patient administered corticosteroids or immunomodulators prophylactic HBV treatment should be initiated despite HBV-DNA and transaminase levels in this Pegylated and ribavirin acts as a first combination of choice for the initial stage of treatment as slowly the therapy varies according to the genotype and virologic response of the patient. During the treatment of HCV patients received antiviral therapy when compared to the infection by both hepatitis virus HCV causes high risk in patients as patient with HCV infection died of acute on chronic liver failure.

Session on infectious disease: